Figure Guidelines


We provide tools and guidelines for creating high-quality figures and images that are optimized for submission to the journal. Please review these guidelines and make sure that your figures and images meet our requirements. If you have any questions, please send E-mail to

Technical Requirements

Each figure should be able to fit on a single 210 x 285 mm page. 

Files should be provided in accordance with the following:


• For initial submission, we prefer vector drawings*, such as MS Office (Word, PowerPoint, Excel), Origin(opj) format, PDF figure formats, AI, EPS,SigmaPlot(JNB) format.

• For color or grayscale photographs, TIFF is an acceptable format, and the resolution should be 300 dpi at the desired print size.

• For black and white figures, the resolution should be 500 dpi at the desired print size.

• For line-art figures, the resolution should be 1,000 dpi at the desired print size, we prefer VECTOR format.

• Make sure that any raster artwork within the source document is at the appropriate minimum resolution.

• When color is involved, it should be encoded as RGB.

• Always include/embed fonts and only use "Times new roman" font.

• Limit vertical space between parts of an illustration to only what is necessary for visual clarity.

• Line weights should 0.5 pt.


*Note: Virtually all common artwork-creation software, such as Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Canvas, ChemDraw, CorelDraw, SigmaPlot, Origin Lab, and others, is capable of saving files in PDF format. This option can normally be found under the "Save As" or "Export" commands in the "File" menu. With Origin Lab, you can also found "Copy page"(or Ctrl+J) under the "Edit", paste(Ctrl+V) to the WORD file.


Please do not:

• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;

• Supply files that are too low in resolution;

• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.



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