Chlorination of a common green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, produced 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DCBQ), the most prevalent HBQ DBP in disinfected water. This was confirmed by the chlorination of proteins extracted from C. vulgaris: the amount of 2,6-DCBQ produced is linearly correlated with the concentration of total algal protein (R2 = 0.98). These results support that proteins are the primary precursors of 2,6-DCBQ in algae, and control of green algal bloom outbreaks in source waters is important for management of HBQ DBPs.
The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, with thousands types of nanomaterials being produced, will lead to various environmental impacts. Thus, understanding the behaviors and fate of these nanomaterials is essential. This study focused on the interaction between polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF) and ferrihydrite (Fh), a widespread iron (oxyhydr)oxide nanomineral and geosorbent. Our results indicated that the interaction between PHF and Fh could evidently influence the migration of PHF, as well as the aggregation and reactivity of Fh.