Environmental health and toxicology

Risk assessment for the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fromthe ingestion of cockle (Anadara granosa) and exposure to contaminated waterand sediments along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia


Seiedeh Aghileh Mirsadeghi , Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria , Chee Kong Yap , Azadeh Shahbazi

DOI:

Received January 24, 2010,Revised July 09, 2010, Accepted , Available online

Volume 23,2011,Pages 336-345

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The concentration of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) present in the sediment and water of Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the cockle Anadara granosa was investigated. Samples were extracted and analysed with gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The concentrations of total carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (t-PAHs) were measured between 0.80 0.04 to 162.96 14.74 ng/g wet weight (ww) in sediment, between 21.85 2.18 to 76.2 10.82 ng/L in water samples and between 3.34 0.77 to 46.85 5.50 ng/g ww in the cockle tissue. The risk assessment of probable human carcinogens in the Group B2 PAHs was calculated and assessed in accordance with the standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Case I in the toxicity assessment analysed the cancer risk to consumers of Malaysian blood cockle. Case II assessed the risk of cancer from exposure to PAHs from multiple pathways. The average cancer risk of case I and case II were found to be classifiable as unsafe according to the US EPA standard. The cancer risk due to c-PAHs acquired by the ingestion of blood cockle was (8.82 0.54) 10??6 to (2.67 0.06) 10??2, higher than the US EPA risk management criterion. The non-cancer risks associated with multiple pathways in Kuala Gula, Kuala Juru and Kuala Perlis were higher than the US EPA safe level, but the non-cancer risk for eating blood cockle was below the level of US EPA concern.

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