Aquatic environment

Accelerated biodegradation of nitrophenols in the rhizosphere of Spirodela polyrrhiza

Risky Ayu Kristanti , Masahiro Kanbe , Tadashi Toyama , Yasuhiro Tanaka , Yueqin Tang , Xiaolei Wu , Kazuhiro Mori


Received June 23, 2011,Revised August 15, 2011, Accepted , Available online May 06, 2012

Volume 24,2012,Pages 800-807

We investigated the biodegradation of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), and 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) in the rhizosphere of Spirodela polyrrhiza plants by conducting degradation experiments with three river water samples supplemented with each nitrophenol (NP). We then isolated NP-degrading bacteria both from the S. polyrrhiza roots and from the river water. In the river water samples, removal of the three NP was accelerated in the presence of S. polyrrhiza plants. The three NPs persisted in an autoclaved solution with sterile plants suggests that NP removal was accelerated largely by bacterial NP biodegradation rather than by adsorption and uptake by the plants. We isolated 8 strains of NP-degrading bacteria: 6 strains from the S. polyrrhiza roots and 2 strains from river water without the plants. The 2-NP- and 2,4-DNP-degrading bacteria were isolated only from the S. polyrrhiza roots. The 4-NPdegrading bacteria different from those isolated from the river water samples were also found on S. polyrrhiza roots. The 2-NP- and 4-NP-degrading strains isolated from the roots utilized the corresponding NP (0.5 mmol/L) as the sole carbon and energy source. The 2,4-DNP-degrading strains isolated from the roots showed substantial 2,4-DNP-degrading activity, but the presence of other carbon and energy sources was required for their growth. The isolated NP-degrading bacteria from the roots must have contributed to the accelerated degradation of the three NPs in the rhizosphere of S. polyrrhiza. Our results suggested that rhizoremediation with S. polyrrhiza may be effective for NP-contaminated surface water.

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