Environmental health and toxicology

Species-dependent effects of the phenolic herbicide ioxynil with potential thyroid hormone disrupting activity: modulation of its cellular uptake and activity by interaction with serum thyroid hormone-binding proteins

Sakura Akiyoshi , Gobun Sai , Kiyoshi Yamauchi


Received June 26, 2011,Revised August 04, 2011, Accepted , Available online May 06, 2012

Volume 24,2012,Pages 949-955

Ioxynil, a phenolic herbicide, is known to exert thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting activity by interfering with TH-binding to plasma proteins and a step of the cellular TH-signaling pathway in restricted animal species. However, comparative studies are still lacking on the TH disruption.We investigated the interaction of [125I]ioxynil with serum proteins from rainbow trout, bullfrog, chicken, pig, rat, and mouse, using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Candidate ioxynil-binding proteins, which included lipoproteins, albumin and transthyretin (TTR), differed among the vertebrates tested. Rainbow trout and bullfrog tadpole serum had the lowest binding activity for ioxynil, whereas the eutherian serum had the highest binding activity. The cellular uptake of, and response to, ioxynil were suppressed by rat serum greater than by tadpole serum. The cellular uptake of [125I]ioxynil competed strongly with phenols with a single ring, but not with THs. Our results suggested that ioxynil interferes with TH homeostasis in plasma and with a step of cellular TH-signaling pathway other than TH-uptake system, in a species-specific manner.

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