Special Issue: Progress and prospects of atmospheric environmental sciences in China
Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxypropionyl nitrate, and carbon tetrachloride in Beijing
Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were measured from September 2010 to August 2011 in Beijing. PAN exhibited low values from mid-autumn to early spring (October to March) with monthly average concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 0.73 ppbV, and increased from early spring to summer (March to August), ranging from 1.37-3.79 ppbV. The monthly variation of PPN was similar to PAN, with low values (below detection limit to 0.18 ppbV) from mid-autumn to early spring, and a monthly maximum in September (1.14 ppbV). The monthly variation of CCl4 was tightly related to the variation of temperature, exhibiting a minimum in winter (69.3 pptV) and a maximum of 180.6 pptV in summer. Due to weak solar intensity and short duration, PAN and O3 showed no distinct diurnal patterns from morning to night during winter, whereas for other seasons, they both exhibited maximal values in the late afternoon (ca. 15:00 to 16:00 local time) and minimal values during early morning and midnight. Good linear correlations between PAN and PPN were found in autumn (R = 0.91), spring (R = 0.94), and summer (R = 0.81), with slopes of 0.130, 0.222, and 0.133, respectively, suggesting that anthropogenic hydrocarbons dominated the photochemical formation of PANs in Beijing. Positive correlation between PAN and O3 in summer with the low slopes (ΔO3/ΔPAN) ranging from 9.92 to 18.0 indicated serious air pollution in Beijing, and strong negative correlation in winter reflected strong O3 consumption by NO titration and less thermal decompositin of PAN.
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