In this study, 44 profiles of gross primary productivity (GPP) and sunlight, along with water temperature, Chlorophyll-a (Chla) and nutrients, were observed in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake, China, in the spring, summer, and fall seasons. Effects of water temperature, light, and nutrient concentration were examined in relation to the GPP-unit-Chla (GPP of algae per Chla). The results showed that the optimum temperature for the GPP of phytoplankton was 27.9°C, the optimal PNA-unit-Chla (photon number absorbed by phytoplankton per Chla) was 0.25 (mol), and the HSCN-unit-Chla and HSCP-unit-Chla (half-saturation constants of nitrogen and phosphorus of algae per Chla) were 0.005 (mg/L) and 0.0004 (mg/L), respectively. The seasonal dependency of the effect of different factors on the GPP was analyzed. Compared with temperature and nutrients, light was found to be the most important factor affecting the GPP during the three seasons. The effect of temperature and nutrients on the GPP of phytoplankton has obvious seasonal change. In spring, temperature was the secondary factor affecting the GPP of phytoplankton, and the effect of nutrients may be negligible in the eutrophic lake on account of temperature limit, which showed that the GPP of algae was only affected by the physical process. In summer and fall, temperature didn't affect the GPP of algae, and the presence of nutrients was the secondary factor affecting the GPP of phytoplankton. From summer to fall, effect of phosphorus was weakened and effect of nitrogen was enhanced.