Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), human pathogenic bacteria (HPB), and HPB carrying ARGs are public issues that pose a high risk to aquatic environments and public health. Their diversity and abundance in water, intestine, and sediments of shrimp culture pond were investigated using metagenomic approach. A total of 19 classes of ARGs, 52 HPB species, and 7 species of HPB carrying ARGs were found. Additionally, 157, 104, and 86 subtypes of ARGs were detected in shrimp intestine, pond water, and sediment samples, respectively. In all the samples, multidrug resistance genes were the highest abundant class of ARGs. The dominant HPB was Enterococcus faecalis in shrimp intestine, Vibrio parahaemolyticus in sediments, and Mycobacterium yongonense in water, respectively. Moreover, E. faecalis (contig Intestine_364647) and Enterococcus faecium (contig Intestine_80272) carrying efrA, efrB and ANT(6)-Ia were found in shrimp intestine, Desulfosaricina cetonica (contig Sediment_825143) and Escherichia coli (contig Sediment_188430) carrying mexB and APH(3′)-IIa were found in sediments, and Laribacter hongkongensis (contig Water_478168 and Water_369477), Shigella sonnei (contig Water_880246), and Acinetobacter baumannii (contig Water_525520) carrying sul1, sul2, ereA, qacH, OXA-21, and mphD were found in pond water. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) analysis indicated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of integrons, insertion sequences, and plasmids existed in shrimp intestine, sediment, and water samples, and the abundance of integrons was higher than that of other two MGEs. The results suggested that HPB carrying ARGs potentially existed in aquatic environments, and that these contributed to the environment and public health risk evaluation.