Brominated dioxins and furans in a cement kiln co-processing municipal solid waste

Lili Yang , Yuyang Zhao , Miwei Shi , Minghui Zheng , Yang Xu , Cui Li , Yuanping Yang , Linjun Qin , Guorui Liu


Received August 20, 2018,Revised , Accepted December 17, 2018, Available online December 27, 2018

Volume 31,2019,Pages 339-345

A field study and theoretical calculations were performed to clarify the levels, profiles, and distributions of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in a cement kiln co-processing solid waste, with a focus on the PBDF formation mechanism. The raw materials contributed greatly to input of PBDD/Fs into the cement kiln. The PBDD/F concentrations in the raw materials were much higher than those in particle samples from different process stages in the cement kiln. The PBDD/F concentrations in the clinkers were 1.40% of the concentrations in the raw materials, which indicated that the high destruction efficiencies for PBDD/Fs by cement kiln. PBDD/F distribution patterns in particle samples collected from different process stages indicated the cement kiln backend was a major site for PBDD/F formation. PBDFs with high levels of halogenation, such as heptabrominated furans (HpBDF), were the dominant contributors to the total PBDD/F concentrations and accounted for 42%–73% of the total PBDD/F concentrations in the particle samples. Our results showed that co-processing of municipal solid waste in a cement kiln may influence the congener profile of PBDD/Fs, especially for the higher halogenated PBDD fraction. In addition, there were significant correlations between the decabromodiphenyl ether and heptabrominated furan concentrations, which is an indicator of transformation from polybrominated diphenyl ethers to PBDD/Fs. Theoretical calculations were performed and demonstrated that elimination of HBr and Br2 from polybrominated diphenyl ethers were the dominant formation pathways for PBDD/Fs. These pathways differed from that for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs).

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