Revealing photon transmission in an ultraviolet reactor: Advanced approaches for measuring fluence rate distribution in water for model validation

Zhimin Qiang , Mengkai Li , Fei Lou , Zhe Sun , Wentao Li , James R. Bolton


Received March 14, 2021,Revised , Accepted March 15, 2021, Available online April 21, 2021

Volume 33,2021,Pages 169-177

Fluence rate (FR) distribution (optical field) is of great significance in the optimal design of ultraviolet (UV) reactors for disinfection or oxidation processes in water treatment. Since the 1970s, various simulation models have been developed, which can be combined with computational fluidic dynamic software to calculate the fluence delivered in a UV reactor. These models strive for experimental validation and further improvement, which is a major challenge for UV technology in water treatment. Herein, a review of the simulation models of the FR distribution in a UV reactor and the applications of the current main experimental measurement approaches including conventional flat-type UV detector, spherical actinometer, and micro-fluorescent silica detector (MFSD), is presented. Moreover, FR distributions in a UV reactor are compared between various simulation models and MFSD measurements. In addition, the main influential factors on the FR distribution, including inner-wall reflection, refraction and shadowing effects of adjacent lamps, and turbidity effect are discussed, which is helpful for improving the accuracy of the simulation models and avoiding dark regions in the reactor design. This paper provides an overview on the simulation models and measurement approaches for the FR distribution, which is helpful for the model selection in fluence calculations and gives high confidence on the optimal design of UV reactors in regard to present methods.

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