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Catalytic oxidation of toluene by manganese oxides: Effect of K+ doping on oxygen vacancy

Zhongxian Song , Zhenzhen Huang , Haiyang Li , Xuejun Zhang , Yanli Mao , Yinghan Wu , Wei Liu , Hongrun Gao , Mengru Zhang


Received February 26, 2023,Revised , Accepted July 25, 2023, Available online July 29, 2023

Volume 36,2024,Pages 43-56

Alkali metal potassium was beneficial to the electronic regulation and structural stability of transition metal oxides. Herein, K ions were introduced into manganese oxides by different methods to improve the degradation efficiency of toluene. The results of activity experiments indicated that KMnO4-HT (HT: Hydrothermal method) exhibited outstanding low-temperature catalytic activity, and 90% conversion of toluene can be achieved at 243°C, which was 41°C and 43°C lower than that of KNO3-HT and Mn-HT, respectively. The largest specific surface area was observed on KMnO4-HT, facilitating the adsorption of toluene. The formation of cryptomelane structure over KMnO4-HT could contribute to higher content of Mn3+ and lattice oxygen (Olatt), excellent low-temperature reducibility, and high oxygen mobility, which could increase the catalytic performance. Furthermore, two distinct degradation pathways were inferred. Pathway Ⅰ (KMnO4-HT): toluene → benzyl → benzoic acid → carbonate → CO2 and H2O; Pathway ⅠⅠ (Mn-HT): toluene → benzyl alcohol → benzoic acid → phenol → maleic anhydride → CO2 and H2O. Fewer intermediates were detected on KMnO4-HT, indicating its stronger oxidation capacity of toluene, which was originated from the doping of K+ and the interaction between Ksingle bondOsingle bondMn. More intermediates were observed on Mn-HT, which can be attributed to the weaker oxidation ability of pure Mn. The results indicated that the doping of K+ can improve the catalytic oxidation capacity of toluene, resulting in promoted degradation of intermediates during the oxidation of toluene.

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